From Holocron - Star Wars Combine
|Homeworld||Dac (Mon Calamari)|
|Language||Mon Calamarian |
|Average Height||1.7 meters |
|Skin color||Usually reddish brown, sometimes blue, green, silver, or magenta |
|Distinctions||Amphibious physiology, bulbous heads, unique vision spectrum |
|Average lifespan||80 years |
|Known Members||List of known Mon Calamari|
The Mon Calamari are a bipedal, amphibious race who share the same homeworld as the Quarren. Many xenobiologists believe the Mon Calamari are descended from squid, but evolved a more humanoid appearance than the Quarren. The males have salmon-colored skin, lobed heads, and protruding eyes. The females are more streamlined, with olive-colored markings on their salmon skin.
The Mon Cal, as they are often called, are shore-dwellers, land creatures who prefer to live near the water. Early Mon Cal civilizations fed on the creatures they found in the shallows, and developed an advanced aquaculture system. When they discovered the Quarren - the other intelligent race on Calamari, who live in the ocean deeps - the two races combined to create a symbiotic society in which both races flourished.
Together, they built the huge floating cities that populated Calamari's oceans. Unlike the Quarren, the Mon Cal desired to travel to the stars, and began experimenting with space flight. Their first starships were quite successful, but their dreams of a peaceful life in space were cut short. As with most other alien races, the Mon Cal were simply exploring the galaxy when they were discovered by the Empire. However, the Mon Cal were one of the few races that put up a fight in the face of certain doom. The normally-peaceful Mon Cal learned quickly from the tactics of the Imperial invaders, and were able to drive them off.
Biology and appearance
They were a fish-like amphibious humanoid species with salmon-colored skin, webbed hands, high-domed eyes and huge, fish-like eyes. They were equally capable of breathing both on land and in water with them being at home in either environment. 
Male Mon Calamari had protrusions on their chin called "barbels" which grew more numerous with age. 
The Mon Calamari are able to descend to depths of up to 30 meters below sea level without requiring breathing or pressure apparatus. Though they can breathe water, they find it somewhat uncomfortable, and use organic gills whenever possible. Mon Calamari could stay underwater for an indefinite period of time, although a frightened Mon Calamari, particularly a juvenile, could drown underwater. They also did not need to decompress when resurfacing. They tended to smell of salt and sea giving them a particular identifiable odor. 
Mon Calamari could swivel their eyes independently from one another, focusing on two areas at once. Mon Calamari saw in different wavelengths than Humans, making it difficult for one species to view visuals designed for the other and vice versa. Their eyes were often used to express emotion; staring with the left eye was a way of showing surprise, while staring with the right eye was either a challenge to fight or an expression of love, depending on the circumstances. 
Their children ranged from the age of 1-11 with them being considered young adults by 12-16 and full adults between 17-40. A Mon Calamari between the age of 41-57 was considered middle aged and old by 58-79 whilst those above the age of 80 were held to be venerable. 
Society and culture
The Mon Calamari had developed a very advanced and civilized culture. Art, music, literature, and science showed a creativity surpassed by few in the galaxy. Mon Calamari literature depicted stars as islands in a galactic sea. This showed a passionate longing to explore space and discover other civilizations. In terms of temperament, they were both soft spoken and gentle. They were extremely tempered to the point that they were slow to anger and had the remarkable ability to maintain their concentration without being distracted by emotional responses. Another notable traits amongst their personality included being inquisitive and creative as well as being quiet. In addition, they were known for a near-legendary quality of being both determined as well as dedicated. This meant that once a Mon Calamari decided on a course of action, they were not easily swayed from that decision. As they are idealistic and daring, they often fixated themselves on causes that seemed hopeless or lost from the start. As such, they had a great deal of enthusiasm and spirit which was often masked by their quiet, orderly exterior. Ultimately, a Mon Calamari often attempted to demonstrate that even dreamers and thinkers were capable of daring and brave when the need arose. This meant that they often thought of the needs of the society and believed in performing the greater good to the point that they placed it above the good of the individual. 
They had developed a reputation for being one of the most skilled starship designers in the galaxy. This partly stemmed from the fact that they saw everything as a work of art rather than being a simple tool or weapon. Their technology was notable for being unique, yet comparable to that of the other inhabitants of the galaxy. While their starships were significantly different from those of other races, they were in fact more efficient in design. However, such vessels tended to be extremely difficult to construct. The mathematically-minded Givin could not stand the Mon Calamari spaceships, as they were too organic and not geometric enough. 
Their species had long been recognized for their organizational and analytical skills. It was this trait that made them brilliant strategists and tacticians. In terms of governance, the Mon Calamari made use of a highly efficient representative form of government that was similar to the Senate. They tended to be lawful and an organized people with little tolerance for those that operate outside the status quo. As such, Mon Calamari tended to dislike and mistrust smugglers. One of the cultural inclinations of the species was that truth of a person's character was capable of being expressed through their eyes. Mon Calamari also possessed a keen love of flying through the stars.
While the Mon Calamari cherished peace, they were not above waging war in causes that they believed in. As such, though they were noted for being peaceful, there were known to possess warrior clans within their society with a long tradition of military service within certain families that extended generations. These clans believed that their skills as warriors were second to none and fiercely believed in their superiority on the battlefield. 
As soldiers, the Mon Calamari were known to fight with a resolve that rivaled the Wookiees. As pilots, the Mon Calamari would control their ships like an artist would control a paintbrush. The Mon Calamari were renowned for their leadership and tactical brilliance both in space and ground combat. 
The Mon Calamari shared their planet with the Quarren, the Whaladons, the Moappa, and the Knowledge Bank. The species claimed that their race came of age in the ancient island chain of Mkbuto Islands which was considered sacred as a result. Their primitive ancestors were shore dwellers though had an affinity for water as well as fed largely on crustaceans, fish and fruit. Over the millennia that followed, they developed a rudimentary form of aquaculture which allowed them to farm fish as well as cultivate kelp. Unlike the other species, their civilization was centered in the shallow parts of the ocean and on Dac's few islands. This gave them a technological head start over the planet's other denizens, especially the Quarren of the ocean depths. Despite this being the case, their technological progress was relatively slower to that of Humans due to the weak metals in their homeworld's crust.
Circa 4,500 BCGT, the Mon Calamari were attacked by the Quarren leading to the devastating Quarren War. The Mon Calamari, though less aggressive by nature, had much better technology, and won the war. In order to prevent future wars, the Mon Calamari took hundreds of young Quarren prisoners, taught them the ways of Mon Calamari civilization, then set them free. After the re-educated Quarrens gained control over Quarren civilization, peace between the two peoples continued for centuries (though it was sometimes a tense relationship). After the initial confusion had passed between the two races, the Mon Calamari formed a symbiotic relationship with the Quarren which resulted in a golden age engulfing their planet. As the Calamari began to advance technologically, they started to construct floating cities which became government, learning and cultural centers. 
As part of their desire to reach the stars, the Mon Calamari along with their Quarren partners created a program for their slow expansion into space. This started with the creation of a ring of habitats as well as science laboratories from which they could further chart their mission. For over a century, they developed their understanding of zero-gravity as well as starship propulsion before they were ready to take the next step of their journey. It was the Mon Calamari mathematician known as Q-Viza who invented his species cavitation hyperdrive technology which, whilst slower than the Corellian equivalent, allowed his species to establish colonies on worlds such as Hinakuu around 4,500 years ago. What followed was early starliners being launched to nearby worlds where they colonized the planets Mantan and Ruisto as well as established an asteroid mining operation that was overseen by the Quarren who refined metals to supplement the construction efforts of the Mon Calamari. This wave of expansion led to the development of the rough boundaries of what became known as Mon Calamari Space though their expansion was limited due to both practical as well as psychological reasons. 
It was during this peaceful era of expansion that first contact came with the Galactic Republic, just prior to the Great Sith War. This was when Republic scouts made contact with Mon Calamari starships at Ruisto. Before this time, the Republic was aware of the existence of the Dac system through probes but deemed it too far from known space for further expansion. As the two civilizations made contact with one another, the Mon Calamari showed their eagerness in learning more of the vast Republic as well as its great knowledge of the galaxy. Their Quarren cousins, however, were more cautious and urged discretion. The Mon Calamari and their homeworld remained a mystery to the Republic over the years due to outsiders being unwilling to interact with the inhabitants as they were constantly on the brink of war. While there was contact between the two, relations were not solid between the two races as the Mon Calamari were reluctant to trust those from off-world. 
Mon Calamari delight turned to dismay when the corrupt forces that gripped the Galactic Republic devastated their homeworld. Later, Dac joined the Galactic Senate. One Mon Calamari even served as Supreme Chancellor during the Sacking of Coruscant. Some Mon Calamari even served in the Republic Military in the Cold War that followed the Great Galactic War.
During the last decades of the Galactic Republic, the government of Dac, and its representation in the Galactic Senate, was shared between the Mon Calamari and the Quarren. While many Mon Calamari traveled through the galaxy and individuals from the Republic came to Mon Calamari Space, ultimately Dac and its colonies were visited infrequently. Furthermore, the planet resisted any attempts at formally joining the Republic which led to Mon Calamari and its legendary shipyards being considered rumors by many. 
References:  - http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Mon_Calamari