|Type of government||Unicameral Federal Republic|
|Head of State||President of the Senate (in distant past), Supreme Chancellor |
|Head-of-Government||President of the Senate (in distant past), Supreme Chancellor, Vice Chair|
|Commander-in-Chief||Minister of Defense (up until 1,000 years ago),|
|Executive branch||Galactic Senate, Senatorial Council, General Ministry (de jure), Office of the Supreme Chancellor (de facto) |
|Legislative branch||Galactic Senate|
|Judicial branch||Supreme Court, Regional Courts|
|Formed from||Core Founders|
|Date of establishment||Circa 25,000 BCGT|
|Date of dissolution||Circa 22 BCGT|
The Galactic Republic was the ruling government of the galaxy for 25 thousand years. Although it was commonly known as the Old Republic, this was not so until the establishment of the Empire; its name when it existed was the Galactic Republic, or simply the Republic. Rarely, it was referred to as the First Galactic Republic. At times, the term Old Order was used to describe it.
For most of its duration as the dominant galactic power, the Republic did not style itself as a strong centralized government, but rather as a union of sovereign planets for the purposes of promoting trade, mediating disputes, and ensuring mutual protection. It is said that its complete history would "fill a thousand libraries".
In its latest years, it was a benevolent—though ineffectual—government tied up in layers of bureaucracy.
The Republic was born with the signing of the Galactic Constitution twenty five thousand years ago, during the Unification Wars. During that time, the Humans and Duros, reverse-engineering the Force-based technologies of the Rakata, invented the hyperdrive, allowing Coruscant to become the capital of the Galactic Republic 53 years later and would remain that way for twenty-five thousand years. The Republic was created by the Core Founders: Alderaan, Alsakan, Anaxes, Axum, Brentaal, Caamas, Chandrila, Corellia, Coruscant, Duro, Esseles, Humbarine, Kuat, Rendili, Rhinnal, Shawken and Tepasi and perhaps Corulag and Kaikielius.
Shortly after the formation of the Republic, the Perlemian Trade Route was mapped, linking Coruscant to Ossus, and bringing the Jedi into the Republic. Over the next millennia, the Corellian Run was mapped, linking Coruscant to Corellia and beyond. The wedge defined by the two trade routes became known as "the Slice." Since the stretch of hyperspace galactic-west of Coruscant was anomaly-ridden and impassible for then current Republic technology , the government expanded eastward, instead. The Core Worlds' portion of the Slice was known as the Arrowhead, and soon the Republic expanded into the Colonies.
Though history often recalls the Republic as peaceful; numerous galactic conflicts occurred throughout its long history.
At first, the government on Coruscant wished for slow expansion, despite its promotion of hyperspace exploration. However, against the government's wishes, the membership of the Republic boomed for its first millennium of existence, mainly due to worlds wishing to join as protection against the Hutt Empire. Its capital soon became a galactic hub.
24 thousand years ago, the Republic entered into the Tionese War against the Honorable Union of Desevro & Tion. The war traveled up and down the Perlemian, and the respective capitals of Coruscant and Desevro both suffered volleys of pressure bombs. The Republic eventually won the war by stirring up the Hutts against the Tionese. Within a century, most of the Tion Cluster swore allegiance to Coruscant, except for Desevro, which chose to remain independent.
During the Great Manifest Period (20,000 thousand years ago–17,000 years ago), the Republic expanded eastwards across the galaxy. Despite this, the Slice would remain the heart of navigable space. Eventually, the Republic expanded past the galactic-northern and southern borders of the Slice, though most of the galaxy was still unknown, except for outposts such as Ord Mantell (12,000 years back) and Malastare (8,000 years back). The space west of Coruscant still remained unexplored since analogues to the Perlemian Trade Route and the Corellian Run in that direction still had not been discovered. Worse, progress was limited to dangerous one- or two-light-year jumps into a stretch of hyperspatial anomalies. During this period, the Expansion Region was formed. However, this region suffered greatly as a result of the Alsakan attempting to snatch control of the Republic from Coruscant. This resulted in seventeen Alsakan Conflicts, spanning from 17,000 years ago to 3,000 years ago. However, most of the fighting took place between their holdings in the Expansion Region, rather than in the Core itself. Needless to say, Coruscant won every conflict it fought.
Around 12,000 years ago, Contispex became Supreme Chancellor. He and his descendants belonged to the theocratic Pius Dea cult that would control the Republic for the next 1,000 years. These fanatic Supreme Chancellors sanctioned "crusades" against rival alien sects in the Rim. After 11,000 BBY the cult may have violently dissolved. The tensions from the fallout of the crusades would deepen the rifts between the Core Worlds and those of the Rim.
Around seven hundred years ago, the Second Great Schism occurred when a group of fallen Jedi discovered a Force technique that could alter lifeforms. This started the centuries-long Hundred-Year Darkness, which saw the creation of monstrous creatures, most notably the serpentine Leviathans. At the Battle of Corbos in 6,900 BBY, the Jedi crushed the rebellion and banished these fallen Jedi from known space. However, the fallen Jedi discovered Korriban, a desolate world inhabited by the relatively primitive but unusually Force-sensitive Sith people.
Using their training in the Force, the fallen Jedi amazed the Sith and elevated themselves to god-like status on nearby Ziost, becoming the rulers of the Sith people. As years passed, and interbreeding occurred between the fallen Jedi and the Sith, the term "Sith" came to mean not only the original inhabitants of Korriban and Ziost, but also their fallen Jedi masters.
Five thousand years ago, the Jedi and the Sith Empire clashed in the Great Hyperspace War. Many worlds were forever scarred in that battle, but the Jedi were able to repulse the invaders. After that, the Republic granted the Jedi land over a Force nexus: a sacred mountain on Coruscant.
A bit more than four thousand years ago, the Third Great Schism occurred, which involved fighting on Coruscant. The surviving Dark Jedi were forced to flee to the Vultar system, where they discovered ancient technology indicating that the system's worlds were artificial constructs, probably the creations of the mysterious Celestials who had also built the Corellian system. These Dark Jedi took over these machines, but could not control them, and soon destroyed the whole system and everything in them during the Vultar Cataclysm. Soon afterwards, four Jedi Masters (two Warrior Masters and two Sage Masters) established the ziggurat of the Jedi Temple over the Force nexus on Coruscant, which would stand for over four thousand years.
The next several hundred years saw many wars, including:
- the Great Droid Revolution on Coruscant, when techniques for disabling machines through the use of the Force were discovered;
- the Great Sith War and the subsequent Great Hunt and the Cleansing of the Nine Houses;
- the Mandalorian Wars, between Mandalorian forces hoping to expand their colonies beyond the Outer Rim Territories and the Galactic Republic, which feared further incursions;
- Jedi Civil War, also known as the War of the Star Forge, fought between the Republic and the Sith Empire, in which many worlds, including Taris, Dantooine, and Telos IV were devastated by the Sith fleet;
- Kanz Disorders in the Kanz sector, when a military regime was established in the sector and the Lorrdians enslaved, lasted three hundred years;
- finally, circa 3,700 years ago, the Great War between the Sith Empire and the Republic, greatly weakened the Republic. Many star systems began withdrawing from the Republic. The Treaty of Coruscant forced the Republic to abandon many long-time allies, including the Bothans.
Around 3,900 years ago an expansion fleet was sponsored by the Queen of Grizmalt, which led to the discovery of Naboo. Two hundred years later, the Hydian Way, which spanned the entire north-south width of the galaxy, was discovered. This allowed the Republic to expand past the Slice into the worlds of the Mid and Outer Rims, and also led to the discovery of more hyperspace routes, including the Corellian Trade Spine, thus starting the Second Expansion Wave.
Approximately two thousand years ago, another Sith Empire was created, this time far larger than any of its three predecessors. The conflict fluctuated until the Battle of Mizra (around 1,450 years ago) which was one of the greatest Sith victories in history. The losses for the Republic were so catastrophic that a dark age began, with widespread social unrest and economic collapse. The Republic shrunk to the area surrounding the Core Worlds, Inner Colonies, and few other worlds outside it, with the Sith Empire encompassing virtually the rest of the entire galaxy. The Jedi took over absolute authority, ruling the remainder of the Republic directly. After nearly five hundred years of continued war, the Sith were defeated, although almost the entire army of the Republic also perished. The Rule of Two was subsequently initiated by the Sith, meaning that at any given time there would only be one Sith Master, and an apprentice.
Following the battle, the Ruusan Reformation was enacted by Chancellor Tarsus Valorum. It returned power to the Senate, placed the Jedi under the authority of the Republic government, and disbanded the vast majority of its remaining military. The Republic came to rely on the Jedi more and more for the maintenance of civility.
Nonetheless, remote planets theoretically under jurisdiction of the Republic hardly could find the technology that was commonly available near the Core. Feeling little interest for those planets, the Republic did not even chart them properly or classify all of their flora and fauna.
Around 30 BCGT, the decline of the Republic started, culminating with its transformation around 22 BCGT into the Galactic Empire.
While the policies of the Galactic Republic would touch every world and organization in known space, three organizations specifically claim to be the modern heirs of the Galactic Republic:
- Galactic Empire: Autocratic Regime which claims to be a reformation of the Republic.
- Rebel Alliance/New Republic: The insurgency which formed towards the end of the First Galactic Civil War eventually grew to be a Recognized Government which claimed to espouse the Republican Principles of the Galactic Republic
- Old Republic(dissolved): In Year 11, Telegron Rothani Shipworks announced that they were reorganizing into a Government that claimed to be led by the survivors of Emperor Drayson's purge of the Galactic Senate.They adopted the name previously reserved for historical reference to the Galactic Republic. They even used the title of Supreme Chancellor to refer to their Head of Government/Head of State(the difference being that the new Supreme Chancellorship was a permanent post,to be held until death or retirement.)